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As I’ve mentioned earlier, the colon is where the majority of bacteria in your gastrointestinal tract reside, giving the cells that line it two important functions: serving as a blockade against pathogens and bacteria that don’t belong in your circulation, while also allowing for the absorption of fluids and any remaining nutrients that haven’t been absorbed by the small intestine. This physical barrier forms part of the body’s innate immune system. The innate immune system plays a major role in mediating inflammation and autoimmunity. It helps keep the microbiome and our immune cells (our adaptive immune system) separate from each…

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The goal of European waste-related legislation is to protect public health and the environment and, so far, it has had a significant impact. However, given the lack of precision of the definition of waste in the European Community Directive (European Council, 1993), each Member State makes a different interpretation of the definition of waste with regard to specific materials, resulting in trade barriers and the impact of this upon the recycling industry is not to be underestimated. Under the present European definition of waste, recoverable material is seen more as a potential pollutant than as a potential raw material (Bontoux…

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Many articles reported on the effects of a wide variety of pollutant forms, including individual complex chemicals and metals to freshwater and seawater aquatic organisms. In a rapid bioassay, 96 cell culture plates for screening herbicides and other phytotoxins for selective toxicity toward cyanobacteria were developed. Oscillatoria cf. chalybea and Selenastrum capricornutum were chosen as representatives of cyanobacteria (Cyanophyta) and green algae (Chlorophyta), respectively (Schrader et al., 1997). A number of ectomycorrhizal fungi, from sites uncontaminated by toxic metals, were analyzed to determine their sensitivity to Cd2, Pb2, Zn2 and Sb3. Significant interspecific variation in sensitivity to Cd2and Zn2 was…

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The link between depression and poor diet is well established, and being depressed can certainly lead us to unhealthy eating. But do poor diets make us depressed, and if we improve our diets, will our mental health improve? We now have an answer, thanks to the SMILES trial, published in 2017 and led by Dr. Felice Jacka, the director of Deakin University’s Food and Mood Centre in Australia. Using a modified Mediterranean diet focusing on fresh vegetables, fruits, raw unsalted nuts, eggs, olive oil, fish, and grass-fed beef, Jacka and team saw patients with major depression improve their scores by…

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Contrary to popular belief, ketogenic diets are not meant to be high in protein. This is because excess protein (beyond what is required to maintain your muscle) can be transformed into glucose in the body, a process called gluconeogenesis. Dietary protein is also insulin-stimulating, albeit to a much smaller degree than carbohydrates—insulin helps to shuttle amino acids from the protein into skeletal muscle tissue to aid in repair (this is helpful in the context of resistance training, for example, where it promotes muscleprotein synthesis). The ketogenic diet has been in clinical use for over eighty years as a powerful treatment…

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Most of the initially conducted LCA studies compared different packaging materials. For example, for milk, a large number of studies has been carried out comparing single-use cartons with disposable and refillable bottles of both glass and polycarbonate. An ecologically sound recycling and recovery of the packaging material strategy combines mechanical recycling with efficient feedstock recycling and energy techniques. The analysis clearly showed that mechanical recycling of the high-grade film and bottle fractions, which only accounted for about 30% of the plastic packaging of households, has already reached its limits (Boudouropoulos and Arvanitoyannis, 1999, 2000). In the feedstock recycling and energy…

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