An embedded system is basically a microprocessor formulated mainly to handle the requirements of an embedded system. It needs less power, so the processor size is small and takes fewer energy sources. The standard microprocessors generally come with processors in a chip. And the peripherals are diverted from the primary chip, resulting in much more power consumption.
The embedded processors are of two types, namely microprocessors and microcontrollers. Embedded processors are mainly utilised for those systems which do not need any processing power of a primary device like laptops, desktops, or workstations.
Role of processors
The processor in embedded systems has the same role as the heart in the human body. So, the processor is considered the heart of the embedded system. The processor is the central unit in the embedded system that takes input, processes the received data, and then produces an output. The embedded system designer should know well about microcontrollers and microprocessors.
Processors in a System
The embedded system processor has primary and essential units: Program Flow Control Unit (CU) and Execution Unit (EU). The control unit comprises a gets component for getting instructions from a memory part. The Execution Unit includes circuits that execute the instructions correlating to data conversion and data transfer operations from one aspect to another.
The EU comprises ALU (Arithmetic and Logical Unit) and circuits that enforces instruction for a task of program control like interpreting or jumping to another instruction set.
The processors have a central role in running the fetch cycles and executing all the instructions received in the same way and sequences as they are taken from the memory portion.
Embedded systems and processors
A computer’s software and hardware combination, called an embedded system, is developed for a specific purpose. Moreover, embedded systems may regulate a portion of larger systems. The systems can perform various functions, I.e., they are programmable or may do only some specific parts.
The CPU of an embedded system serves as a brain of a system. The processor receives the user data, processes it, and then provides an output based on a specific function they were programmed to do. Moreover, the instructions provided are retrieved, decoded, and finally processed by a processor.
The control unit of a processor performs data nomination along with retrieving tasks. Each processor is fitted with an execution unit, made of an ALU, comprising a circuit used to operate the instruction sets required to perform a specific task.
The highlighting qualities of embedded systems, like their less consumption of power, smaller size, and not having a graphical user interface, are well understood. These high qualities assist microprocessor-based systems in accomplishing continuously along with a teal time OS.
In addition, embedded processors come in various sizes and shapes and are manufactured by different companies. These processors can be used for multiple applications in an embedded system. Depending on the applications of processors in an embedded system, processors are classified into various categories.
- General Purpose Processor (GPP)
o Digital Signal Processor
o Embedded Processor
o Media Processor
- Application Specific Instruction Processors (ASIPs)
- Application Specific System Processor (ASSP)